Comanche | History & Facts | hippocratics.info
Dating back to the early 's, the Comanche were originally part of the to steal cattle from Texas settlers and reselling them in New Mexico. In an attempt to stop the raids upon the Apache, the Spanish offered help;. Comanche Indians were responsible for some of the bloodiest scenes in the Wild West but you would never know that from Johnny Depp's new Lone Ranger film. of their violent encounters with notoriously cruel Spanish colonists and .. Jim Carrey, 56, is dating Kidding co-star Ginger Gonzaga, 34 as. The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and the Apache peoples. The wars began in the s with the arrival of Spanish colonists in present-day New Mexico. The Apache migrated south and west, under pressure from the Comanche who were .
Though the tribe was large, they never formed a single tribal unit, but rather, were divided into some eight to twelve independent groups. Sharing the same language and culture, they sometimes fought between bands and at other times were at peace, cooperating one with the other. Although the name Comanche is well known, it is uncertain where it originated.
The horse was a key element in Comanche culture, who are thought to have been the first of the Plains Indians to have horses. In the beginning, they were primarily a hunter-gatherer nomadic society, but with horses, they became more daring and aggressive and were soon considered as the best buffalo hunters on the plains. The horse trade quickly became a large part of their culture, breeding, stealing, and trading horses to other plains Indians, allowing them also to become more productive buffalo hunters.
Warfare was a major part of Comanche life with conflicts often bringing them into battles with the Apache and other tribal groups.
New Mexico Office of the State Historian | places
Those they stole from often found it simpler and safer to buy back the stolen commodities rather than fight for them. During this period they fought not only the Mexicans and white settlers but also many of the other plains Indians. Now dominating the area surrounding the Texas Panhandle, including western Oklahoma and northeastern New Mexico, the Comanche were so well heeled at their horsemanship that they began to supply horses to French and American traders.
Comanche Camp, Many historians debate whether the Comanche deserve their ferocious reputation, indicating that they were only fighting for retrieval of the land they felt was theirs. Continuing to protect their territory, the formidable Comanche aggressively attacked the many settlers passing through on their way to the California Gold Rush. Some were killed, but most often their horses and cattle were stolen. Another factor inducing the Apache to make peace may have been the fact that New Mexico had made peace with the Comanche inand Comanche were now joining the Spanish in military operations against the Apache.
The number of Apache still living in the mountains and deserts is unknown. Relative peace between the Apache and the Spaniards and Mexicans would endure until Most of the raids into Mexico were carried out by the Chiricahua and Mescalero. When Mexico became independent in the long-standing peace with the Apache began to fall apart.
The number of soldiers at the frontier presidios was reduced, as was the budget for supporting the soldiers and the Apache. The key element leading to war was that, inthe Mexican government cut off food rations to Apaches settled near presidios.
The 2, Apache at the presidios quickly departed, it being necessary for them to resume their hunting-gathering lifestyle if they were to survive. The military commander of Chihuahua declared war on the Apache on October 16, and initiated military action against them. The two states most affected, Chihuahua and Sonora, operated almost independently of each other and the federal government.
Sonora which included Arizona at this time had a thinly-scattered population of perhaps 50, people; Chihuahua had a more concentrated population ofand a better organized government. Neither tribe had a central authority but consisted of a number of independent bands, numbering toeach of which made their own decision concerning peace or war with the Mexicans.
Bands would often unite temporarily to launch larger forces against the Mexicans, but most Apache raids were relatively small scale, involving a few dozen warriors. The Apache also negotiated separately with Mexican states and municipalities, carrying on war with some while at peace with others.
Mexico's problem defeating the mobile and elusive Apache was exacerbated by the rising hostility of the Comanche, Kiowa and Kiowa-Apache who, especially in the s and s, launched large raids involving hundreds of men into northeastern Mexico from their safehaven on the Texas plains.
Most often the Apache objective in a raid was to steal livestock and other property; but a common Apache modus operandi was also to travel by horseback in small groups into Mexico, rendezvous with other groups, attack a settlement, kill the men and capture as many women, children, and livestock as desired, and then flee toward their homeland, setting ambushes along the way to discourage pursuit.
The Apache avoided pitched battles unless they were superior in numbers or had the element of surprise. In Sonora, inthe state government solicited public donations to bolster its defenses, and in briefly reduced salaries of all state officials by 10 to 33 percent to devote the money to enlisting more soldiers.
By the early s Chihuahua had 1. However, much of this force was devoted to protecting the eastern part of the state against Comanches rather than fighting the Apache. The landscape is typical of that inhabited by the Apache, a mix of desert plains and rugged mountains. Inthe government of Sonora put a bounty on the Apache which, over time, evolved into a payment by the government of pesos for each scalp of a male 14 or more years old.
Later, Chihuahua offered the same bounty for males plus a bounty of 50 pesos for the capture of an adult female and 25 pesos for a child under Bounty hunters were also allowed to keep any Apache property they captured. The bounty for one Apache male was more than many Mexicans and American workers earned in a full year. A famous and often-exaggerated battle or massacre involved a United States citizen named John Johnson, resident in Sonora, who led an expedition against the Apache in April The Apache had raided near the municipality of Moctezuma and driven away a herd of cattle.
Johnson gathered together 17 North Americans and 5 Mexico muleskinners, apparently collected expense money from the Sonora government, and borrowed an artillery piece, probably a Swivel gunsmall enough to be carried mule-back from the presidio at Fronteras. For his accomplishment, Johnson received a reward of pesos and the official thanks of the state government.
Photo taken in Punitive missions such as Johnson's however, inflamed the Apache rather than intimidated them.
- Apache–Mexico Wars
- The Rise And Fall Of The Comanche 'Empire'
In22 fur trappers were killed nearby and the Apache severed the mine's supply line. The to inhabitants of Santa Rita fled south toward the Janos presidio, miles away, but the Apache killed nearly all of them en route.
Afterwards, the Santa Rita mine was only occasionally in operation until when Apache chief Cochise signed a peace agreement with the US and the mine was reopened. Kirker's second in command was a Shawnee Indian named Skybuck. S as well as Anglos and Mexicans.
Kirker's small army seems to have worsened the situation by killing friendly Apache or groups negotiating peace, after which Apache raids increased. InKirker and local Mexicans were responsible for a massacre of peaceful Apaches at GaleanaChihuahua.