Surveillance Ethics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Read Download Online Ethics And Technology. Controversies Ethics And. Technology Controversies Questions And Strategies For Ethical Computing By Herman T Tavani read online. Ethics Date of publishing: November 15th, . Digital and social technologies tend to change how people of all ages learn In this paper, we argue that a current Internet Research Ethics .. consent is considered in the context of the date, availability, and traceability of the online .. In K. E. Himma & H. T. Tavani (Eds.), The handbook of information and computer ethics. Tavani, Herbert T. “Information Privacy, Data Readers are also encouraged to visit the online journal Surveillance and Society. Volume 10, No. Ethics and Information Technology 5(3): – Ballotpedia. No Date. “ Government.
Cutler says that there is the perception that older workers lack experience with new technology and that retaining programs may be less effective and more expensive for older workers.
Cascio says that there is a growth of virtual organizations. Doucet calls for city empowerment to have the courage and foresight to make decisions that are acceptable to its inhabitants rather that succumb to global consumer capitalism and the forces of international corporations on national and local governments  Scientific and technological innovations that have transformed organizational life within a global economy have also supplanted human autonomy and control in work within a technologically oriented workplace The persuasive potential of technology raises the question of "how sensitive The advent of virtual organizations and telework has bolstered ethical problems by providing more opportunities for fraudulent behaviour and the production of misinformation.
Concerted efforts are required to uphold ethical values in advancing new knowledge and tools within societal relations which do not exclude people or limit liberties of some people at the expense of others  Copyright[ edit ] Digital copyrights are a heated issue because there are so many sides to the discussion.
There are ethical considerations surrounding the artist, producer, end user, and the country are intertwined. Not to mention the relationships with other countries and the impact on the use or no use of content housed in their countries. In Canadanational laws such as the Copyright Act and the history behind Bill C are just the beginning of the government's attempt to shape the "wild west" of Canadian Internet activities.
Overall, technoethics forces the "big picture" approach to all discussions on technology in society. Although time consuming, this "big picture" approach offers some level of reassurance when considering that any law put in place could drastically alter the way we interact with our technology and thus the direction of work and innovation in the country. The use of copyrighted material to create new content is a hotly debated topic.
A moral conflict is created between those who believe that copyright protects any unauthorized use of content, and those who maintain that sampling and mash-ups are acceptable musical styles and, though they use portions of copyrighted material, the end result is a new creative piece which is the property of the creator, and not of the original copyright holder.
Whether or not the mashup genre should be allowed to use portions of copyrighted material to create new content is one which is currently under debate. Computer crime For many years[ vague ], new technologies took an important place in social, cultural, political, and economic life. Thanks to the democratization of informatics access and the network's globalizationthe number of exchanges and transaction is in perpetual progress.
Many people[ vague ] are exploiting the facilities and anonymity that modern technologies offer in order to commit multiple criminal activities. Cybercrime is one of the fastest growing areas of crime. The problem is that some laws that profess to protect people from those who would do wrong things via digital means also threaten to take away people's freedom.
Full-body airport scanners[ edit ] Since the introduction of full body X-ray scanners to airports inmany concerns over traveler privacy have arisen. Individuals are asked to step inside a rectangular machine that takes an alternate wavelength image of the person's naked body for the purpose of detecting metal and non-metal objects being carried under the clothes of the traveler.
This screening technology comes in two forms, millimeter wave technology MM-wave technology or backscatter X-rays similar to x-rays used by dentists. Full-body scanners were introduced into airports to increase security and improve the quality of screening for objects such as weapons or explosives due to an increase of terrorist attacks involving airplanes occurring in the early s.
Ethical concerns of both travelers and academic groups include fear of humiliation due to the disclosure of anatomic or medical details, exposure to a low level of radiation in the case of backscatter X-ray technologyviolation of modesty and personal privacyclarity of operating procedures, the use of this technology to discriminate against groups, and potential misuse of this technology for reasons other than detecting concealed objects.
Also people with religious beliefs that require them to remain physically covered arms, legs, face etc. The Centre for Society, Science and Citizenship have discussed their ethical concerns including the ones mentioned above and suggest recommendations for the use of this technology in their report titled "Whole Body Imaging at airport checkpoints: As discussed in the New York Times's Sunday Review on September 22,the editorial focused on the ethical ramifications that imprisoned a drug offender because of the GPS technology in his cellphone was able to locate the criminal's position.
Now that most people carry on the person a cell, the authorities have the ability to constantly know the location of a large majority of citizens.
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The ethical discussion now can be framed from a legal perspective. As raised in the editorial, there are stark infractions that these geolocation devices on citizens' Fourth Amendment and their protection against unreasonable searches. This reach of this issue is not just limited to the United States but affects more democratic state that uphold similar citizens' rights and freedoms against unreasonable searches.
As discussed in article by the Canadian Broadcasting Company, "GPS and privacy", that a growing number of employers are installing geolocation technologies in " company vehiclesequipment and cellphones" Hein, Both academia and unions are finding these new powers of employers to be indirect contradiction with civil liberties. This changing relationship between employee and employer because of the integration of GPS technology into popular society is demonstrating a larger ethical discussion on what are appropriate privacy levels.
This discussion will only become more prevalent as the technology becomes more popular. Even commonplace genetically modified crops like corn raise questions of the ecological consequences of unintended cross pollinationpotential horizontal gene transferand other unforeseen health concerns for humans and animals. These zebrafishgenetically modified to appear in several fluorescent colours and sold as pets in the United States, could have unforeseen effects on freshwater environments were they ever to breed in the wild.
There are health and environmental concerns associated with the introduction any new GMO, but more importantly this scenario highlights the potential economic impact a new product may have.
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The FDA does perform an economic impact analysis to weigh, for example, the consequences these new genetically modified fish may have on the traditional salmon fishing industry against the long term gain of a cheaper, more plentiful source of salmon.
These technoethical assessmentswhich regulatory organizations like the FDA are increasingly faced with worldwide, are vitally important in determining how GMOs—with all of their potential beneficial and harmful effects—will be handled moving forward. Pregnancy screening technology[ edit ] For over 40 years, newborn screening has been a triumph of the 20th century public health system.
However, this technology is growing at a fast pace, disallowing researchers and practitioners from being able to fully understand how to treat diseases and provide families in need with the resources to cope. A version of pre-natal testing, called tandem mass spectrometryis a procedure that "measures levels and patterns of numerous metabolites in a single drop of blood, which are then used to identify potential diseases.
Using this same drop of blood, tandem mass spectrometry enables the detection of at least four times the number of disorders than was possible with previous technologies. Further concerns include "diagnostic odysseys", a situation in which the patient aimlessly continues to search for diagnoses where none exists.
Among other consequences, this technology raises the issue of whether individuals other than newborn will benefit from newborn screening practices. A reconceptualization of the purpose of this screening will have far reaching economic, health and legal impact. This discussion is only just beginning and requires informed citizenry to reach legal if not moral consensus on how far we as a society are comfortable with taking this technology. Citizen journalism Citizen journalism is a concept describing citizens who wish to act as a professional journalist or media person by "collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information"  According to Jay Rosencitizen journalists are "the people formerly known as the audience," who "were on the receiving end of a media system that ran one way, in a broadcasting pattern, with high entry fees and a few firms competing to speak very loudly while the rest of the population listened in isolation from one another— and who today are not in a situation like that at all.
The people formerly known as the audience are simply the public made realer, less fictional, more able, less predictable". Due to the openness of the internet, there are discernible effects on the traditional profession of journalism. Although the concept of citizen journalism is a seasoned one, "the presence of online citizen journalism content in the marketplace may add to the diversity of information that citizens have access to when making decisions related to the betterment of their community or their life".
The open and instantaneous nature of the internet affects the criteria of information quality on the web. A journalistic code of ethics is not instilled for those who are practicing citizen journalism. Journalists, whether professional or citizen, have needed to adapt to new priorities of current audiences: Professional journalists have had to adapt to these new practices to ensure that truthful and quality reporting is being distributed.
The concept can be seen as a great advancement in how society communicates freely and openly or can be seen as contributing to the decay of traditional journalistic practices and codes of ethics. Other issues to consider: People see more electronic music today with the new technology able to create it, as well as more advanced recording technology  Recent developments[ edit ] Despite the amassing body of scholarly work related to technoethics beginning in the s, only recently has it become institutionalized and recognized as an important interdisciplinary research area and field of study.
This institute has actively promoted technoethical scholarship through awards, conferences, and publications. The major driver for the emergence of technoethics can be attributed to the publication of major reference works available in English and circulated globally.
The "Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics" included a section on technoethics which helped bring it into mainstream philosophy. The two volume Handbook of Research on Technoethics explores the complex connections between ethics and the rise of new technologies e. This recent major collection provides the first comprehensive examination of technoethics and its various branches from over 50 scholars around the globe.
The emergence of technoethics can be juxtaposed with a number of other innovative interdisciplinary areas of scholarship which have surfaced in recent years such as technoscience and technocriticism. A main concern is piracy and illegal downloading; with all that is available through the internet a lot of music TV shows and movies as well have become easily accessible to download and upload for free.
This does create new challenges for artist, producers, and copyright laws. The advances it has positively made for the industry is a whole new genre of music. These advances have allowed the industry to try new things and make new explorations.
Future developments[ edit ] The future of technoethics is a promising, yet evolving field. The studies of e-technology in workplace environments are an evolving trend in technoethics. With the constant evolution of technology, and innovations coming out daily, technoethics is looking to be a rather promising guiding framework for the ethical assessments of new technologies.
Some of the questions regarding technoethics and the workplace environment that have yet to be examined and treated are listed below: Are organizational counter measures not necessary because it invades employee privacy? Are surveillance cameras and computer monitoring devices invasive methods that can have ethical repercussions? Should organizations have the right and power to impose consequences?
Areas of technoethical inquiry[ edit ] Main article: Bioethics Biotech ethics concerned with ethical dilemmas surrounding the use of biotechnologies in fields including medical research, health care, and industrial applications. Topics such as cloning ethics, e-health ethics, telemedicine ethics, genetics ethics, neuroethicsand sport and nutrition ethics fall into this category; examples of specific issues include the debates surrounding euthanasia and reproductive rights. Topics of study that would fit into this category would be artificial morality and moral agentstechnoethical systems and techno-addiction.
An artificial agent may try to advance its own goals or those of another agent. This is an important consideration as some technologies are created for use by a specific gender, including birth controlabortionfertility treatmentsand Viagra. Feminists have had a significant influence on the prominence and development of reproductive technologies. Another dimension of technofeminism concerns female involvement in technological development: Information and communication technoethics[ edit ] Information and communication technoethics is "concerned with ethical issues and responsibilities arising when dealing with information and communication technology in the realm of communication.
A major area of interest is the convergence of technologies: This is particularly evident in the realms of the internet. In recent years, users have had the unprecedented position of power in creating and disseminating news and other information globally via social networking; the concept of " citizen journalism " primarily relates to this.
With developments in the media, has led to open media ethics as Ward writes, leading to citizen journalism. These were re-broadcast by news outlets, and more importantly, re-circulated by and to other internet users.
Understanding New Media In the latter example, there had been efforts made by the Iranian government in censoring and prohibiting the spread of internal happenings to the outside by its citizen journalists. This occurrence questioned the importance of the spread of crucial information regarding the issue, and the source from which it came from citizen journalists, government authorities, etc.
This goes to prove how the internet "enables new forms of human action and expression [but] at the same time it disables [it]"  Information and Communication Technoethics also identifies ways to develop ethical frameworks of research structures in order to capture the essence of new technologies.
Educational and professional technoethics[ edit ] Main article: Internet research ethics Technoethical inquiry in the field of education examines how technology impacts the roles and values of education in society. This field considers changes in student values and behavior related to technology, including access to inappropriate material in schools, online plagiarism using material copied directly from the internetor purchasing papers from online resources and passing them off as the student's own work.
Professional technoethics focuses on the issue of ethical responsibility for those who work with technology within a professional setting, including engineers, medical professionals, and so on. Environmental and engineering technoethics[ edit ] Main articles: Environmental ethics and Engineering ethics Environmental technoethics originate from the s and s' interest in environment and nature.
The field focuses on the human use of technologies that may impact the environment;  areas of concern include transportminingand sanitation.
Ethics of technology
Engineering technoethics emerged in the late 19th century. As the Industrial Revolution triggered a demand for expertise in engineering and a need to improve engineering standards, societies began to develop codes of professional ethics and associations to enforce these codes. Technology assessment A technoethical assessment TEA is an interdisciplinary, systems-based approach to assessing ethical dilemmas related to technology. One justification often given for large-scale surveillance is the consequentialist appeal to the greater good.
This might apply when the security of the community is best served by monitoring some or all in that community. If the community in question is a state then the numbers involved will be too great to realistically gain complete acceptance of the surveillance by every citizen. As such the state may then appeal to the benefits that will come to more people as a result of the surveillance to justify the imposition. Deontologists are likely to resist this justification as it implies that the rights of the few may be overridden by the interests of the many.
A deontological justification will look rather to the entity to be surveilled and ask what it is about that entity that means it deserves or is in some way liable to be monitored in this way. Given the aforementioned harms of surveillance, there must be a good reason as to why this person or group should be exposed to those harms. In practice, justifications for surveillance often include both consequentialist and deontological considerations. Hence state security is justified in both protecting the majority and focusing its attention on particular wrongdoers who pose a threat to that majority.
Similarly, CCTV in the public square is justified in providing peace of mind to the general public by monitoring all, but targeting only particular individuals or groups who are believed to pose a threat. CCTV, which is indiscriminate in whom it monitors, lends itself to a consequentialist perspective. In shopping malls the majority of people surveilled by CCTV have done nothing wrong and have no intention of wrongdoing.
Nonetheless, the benefits which CCTV brings in detecting the minority of wrongdoers and punishing them may be taken to justify the surveillance of all. If a person has given an authority such as the police reasonable suspicion to believe he has committed a crime, so he has rendered himself liable to be monitored in this way. Finally, differences between deontologists and consequentialists emerge in opposition to surveillance. Deontologists will typically find surveillance less acceptable when it violates certain rights of individuals such as the right to privacy.
By contrast, consequentialists will tend to be more sanguine about concerns with individual rights in favour of overall costs and benefits to society. If a particular instance of surveillance can be shown to improve the wellbeing of society, albeit at the cost of the privacy of a few individuals, then consequentialists are less likely to see this as problematic than deontologists.
Authority Much of the justification of surveillance, and particularly the cause of that surveillance, will depend on who it is that is carrying out the surveillance. State security can and should be carried out by state intelligence agencies.
By contrast it should not be carried out by journalists or foreign aid workers, who need to maintain a level of neutrality in order to carry out their work effectively. If this is the role of state intelligence agencies then those agencies would not be justified in the surveillance of domestic employers to ensure that they are not abusing their workforce.
This should rather be the domain of domestic law enforcement. State surveillance of genuine enemies of the state is one of the less controversial elements of surveillance. Even here, though, it is important to be clear as to precisely whose security is being guarded: That of the state or of those currently empowered to run the state?
When the protests occurred in Tiananmen Square inwere the protestors challenging 1 the security of China, 2 the security of the Communist Party running China or 3 the security of those individuals leading the Communist Part of China?
To what extent was China the Communist Party and how much of the identity of the state is tied up with those who run the state? The decision to employ surveillance does not lie entirely with the state, although the state may chose to regulate the use of surveillance.
Employers sometimes monitor their employees, either to prevent theft or whistle-blowing or to ensure that they are working to their maximum ability. Retailers, as noted above, monitor customer spending habits to improve efficiency and sales. Parents monitor sleeping infants so as to respond should the child wake in the night. Private investigators might engage in surveillance to establish infidelity, while Peeping Toms might do so for kicks.
While it might be felt that the investigator is justified and the Peeping Tom is not, what of the case when the private investigator is attempting to establish infidelity and simultaneously enjoying his work a little too much?
In each case the ethical authority to carry out surveillance is intimately linked to the justifying cause of that surveillance. Hence an individual is justified in carrying out surveillance of his property if it is to secure the property from theft, but not if it is to spy on his tenants.
Parents are justified indeed, often expected to monitor their infant children as they sleep, but whether they are also justified in monitoring the babysitter watching over their children is far more controversial. Groups of people are justified in watching their street, particularly if it has been subject to a recent spate of theft, through Neighbourhood Watch schemes, but not in intimidating an unpopular neighbour through persistent overt surveillance. This is not to suggest that intention alone can justify surveillance.
A landlord might wish to secure his property by placing a camera in the bathroom lest a burglar enter through the window. While his intention might not be to spy on his tenants the effect will be precisely that.
Necessity Necessity is often cited as an important condition for justified surveillance.Online Dating and Digital Ethics
We shall discuss proportionality and discrimination below. Here we shall focus on what is meant by necessity in the context of surveillance. When is surveillance necessary, though? Should surveillance, like war, be a matter of last resort? If so, when is that moment of last resort reached? The concept of necessity can limit surveillance from being undertaken arbitrarily or prematurely.
An authority may not monitor anyone at any time. Surveillance must rather be required by the circumstances of the case. We are still left with the question as to when surveillance is required by the circumstances of the case. John Lango Lango has suggested two criteria for necessity: The feasibility standard and the awfulness standard. The first occurs when there is sufficient evidence to suggest that there is no feasible alternative, the second when the alternatives are worse than the proposed course of action.
When one of these criteria is met the action may be deemed necessary. Given the harms of surveillance, it should therefore be avoided if there are less harmful alternatives. However, surveillance becomes necessary when either there is no alternative, or when the alternatives such as physical intrusion or arrest are more harmful than the surveillance itself.
Means How surveillance is carried out is a further consideration which should be taken into account. Is the surveillance proportionate to its aim and is it discriminate in whom it targets? Proportionality of action is a familiar concept in legal and military ethics, but it has application to surveillance as well. We might return to the images of Big Brother or the Panopticon to picture scenarios in which surveillance is total and unending, and the horror which this often arouses in our minds.
In these cases it is hard to imagine the occasioning justification which would see such surveillance as a proportionate response. Even major wars do not justify the perpetual monitoring of all citizens around the clock.
More recent, non-fictional cases exist in the surveillance of school children through using fingerprinting technology either to grant entrance and egress from the school, or to pay for school lunches. Irrespective of health concerns associated with the scanners, they were seen by many to be extremely invasive of privacy without offering a concomitant level of security to those flying on the airline.
If proportionality questions the depth, or intrusiveness of surveillance, discrimination considers its breadth. It asks how many people are likely to be monitored as a result of the particular form of surveillance. Some aspects of surveillance, such as wire tapping, are highly discriminating and target only those using the particular phone under observation. Others, such as CCTV in public places, are broadly indiscriminate and collect information about a great number of people, only some of which will be of interest to the surveillant.
We may ask if there is an onus on the surveillant to be as discriminating as possible and only collect information or invade the privacy of as few people as absolutely necessary, given the confines of what is reasonably possible. A related question is whether any form of surveillance should be absolutely prohibited. Possible candidates for impermissible surveillance would be that of public toilets or private bedrooms. However even here it would appear as if there are cases when these might become of critical importance to justifying causes, such as state security.
This might occur if a civil servant with access to state secrets is believed to be involved in a sexual liaison with a member of a foreign intelligence agency. Less exotically, an organised crime syndicate might use a public toilet as a dead letter drop for passing drugs, guns or money. In each of these cases it might be felt that the perhaps obvious places for banning surveillance could in fact become legitimate contexts.
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In these cases, however, it would be important to protect the innocent as much as possible by limiting the intrusion.
Film which is not useful as evidence should be promptly deleted; the monitoring of toilets should be carried out by a member of the same sex; and if possible software should be used which grants anonymity to all captured on film by default and can only reveal individual details upon request. There is a further potential harm of surveillance in the form of social sorting Lyon The purpose of surveillance, it is argued, is to sort people into categories for ends which are either good or ill.
The danger, however, is that social stereotypes are carried over into these categories and may even be enshrined and institutionalized in them. That is, in the absence of suspicious behaviour they were choosing to focus their attention on these categories of people.
The result is that anyone falling into these categories is more likely to be caught if doing something wrong than someone else, thus perpetuating the stereotype. Furthermore, as these groups were being watched more frequently than others, they were more likely to be seen as doing something suspicious. This in turn could lead to disproportionate response rates by security forces on the ground, contributing to a sense of alienation and rejection by society.
Function Creep Function creep Winner involves extending the use of a technology from the cause for which it was initially intended to a different cause. This is readily seen in the use of identity cards in the UK, introduced in the National Registration Act for the purposes of security, national service and rationing. By the same cards were being used by 39 government agencies for reasons as diverse as collecting parcels from the post office to routine police enquiries.
While any or even all of these were arguably justified, few could be justified under the terms of the initial Act. It was a combination of protest and the eventual recognition of this extension of use which led to the abolition of the Act that same year. It is not just an extension of surveillance technology which can count as function creep but also an extension of the information retrieved by that technology.
CCTV may be installed in a public transport hub in order to better ease traffic flows and predict suicides in order to facilitate timely intervention. In the event of a terrorist atrocity occurring in that hub, though, the same images can be used to identify the terrorist and the means of carrying out the atrocity. In this way function creep can be seen to be complex in its application: Its new use might be fully justifiable.
What is problematic is the application of the technology in a new area in one instance leading to its regular and repeated use in that area, especially when this extension has not been subject to ethical scrutiny. Distance Surveillance typically puts a distance between the surveillant and the person or group surveilled. This can be of benefit to both as it removes the surveillant from the immediacy of the situation and may provide her with time and space to deliberate before reacting to a situation.
It might also mean that she does not feel personally threatened in a situation and so react more calmly than would otherwise be the case. However it also simplifies everyday levels of human interaction such as negotiation, discretion, and the use of subtlety: This is a concern which is exacerbated by the automation of surveillance and threat detection as the software operating the surveillance can only see people in these terms.
There is a further concern that the distance between operator and subject means that the two might never meet. Yet without personal confrontation an operator with social prejudices may never be challenged in her views. She might never meet a person from an ethnic minority or not one from the minority of which she is suspicious and so fail to be challenged in her view that all members of that social group are, by virtue of their membership, inherently worthy of suspicion.
Chilling Effects International law states that people have certain human rights, such as the right to free speech, the right to association and the right to protest United Nations Even if there is no evidence of wrong-doing the state may nonetheless choose to keep records on those who publicly confess to a certain belief, or who choose to associate with those whom the state believes pose a threat.
These records may then be used against citizens at a later date by the state, or by a future iteration of the state if the individuals running the executive change. The knowledge of the accumulation and possession of these records by the state may disincline some citizens from engaging in these legitimate activities, preferring to keep their heads down and avoid notice by the state. In certain dictatorial regimes this may be seen as advantageous.
Power Throughout this article there has been a recurring theme of power. Through the act of surveillance the surveillant gains power over the surveilled, either through the gathering of information regarding that person which they would rather keep secret or, at least, keep control over its distributionor through distancing the person and treating them as acceptable or unacceptable for whatever is the purpose of that surveillance. The balance of power between individuals, or between individuals and groups such as employers or the state, is therefore an important consideration in assessing what it is that is wrong or dangerous about many forms of surveillance.
If we return to the parental monitoring of infants, the context is one of the empowered over the powerless and the cause of the monitoring is paternal care. As noted, this is often seen as a duty of the parent and so one which is justified.
As children grow and become more independent, however, they require less care and gain an increasingly strong claim to their own privacy. This is true of surveillance in general as it transfers power from the surveilled to the surveillant. When consent is given then this is more, although possibly not always, justifiable. In the absence of consent, however, this disempowerment of the individual is highly problematic, threatening their dignity and ultimately their responsibility for their own lives.
References and Further Reading Allen, A. Privacy as an Ethical Limit", The Monist Austin, Texas, March Council of Europe Ethics and Information Technology The Birth of the Prison new edn.
Stories from Behind the Berlin Wall new edn. Joint Services Conference on Professional Ethics.