United States Grand Prix - Wikipedia
The United States Grand Prix was one of the most controversial Formula One motor races in modern history. It was held on June 19, at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and was Date, June 19, . and announced its intention to fly in tyres of a different specification from its Clermont-Ferrand headquarters. Formula One is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in order to .. pre-date the formation of the World Championship and were incorporated . The very top Formula One drivers get paid more than IndyCar or NASCAR. What is the acceptable minimum age for your own (and others') dating partners? when evaluating someone for relationships of different levels of involvement. In Figure 1, the solid black line represents the rule's calculation for minimum Detroit, MI · Houston, TX · Indianapolis, IN · Jacksonville, FL · Las Vegas, NV.
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Although the UK 's Stirling Moss was able to compete regularly, he was never able to win the world championship, and is now widely considered to be the greatest driver never to have won the title.
This period featured teams managed by road car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Mercedes-Benzand Maserati ; all of whom had competed before the war. The first seasons were run using pre-war cars like Alfa's They were front-enginedwith narrow tyres and 1. The and World Championships were run to Formula Two regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the paucity of Formula One cars available.
Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the Le Mans disaster. The iconic British Racing Green Lotuswith a revolutionary aluminium-sheet monocoque chassis instead of the traditional space-frame design, was the dominant car, and inthe team broke new boundaries, when they were the first to carry advertising on their cars.
Australian Jack Brabhamworld champion during, andsoon proved the mid-engined design's superiority. Byall regular competitors had switched to mid-engined cars. The Ferguson P99a four-wheel drive design, was the last front-engined F1 car to enter a world championship race.
It was entered in the British Grand Prixthe only front-engined car to compete that year. This proved to be the greatest technological breakthrough since the introduction of mid-engined cars. DuringLotus painted an Imperial Tobacco livery on their cars, thus introducing sponsorship to the sport. During the late s, Lotus introduced ground-effect aerodynamics previously used on Jim Hall 's Chaparral 2J during that provided enormous downforce and greatly increased cornering speeds.
So great were the aerodynamic forces pressing the cars to the track up to five times the car's weightextremely stiff springs were needed to maintain a constant ride heightleaving the suspension virtually solid, depending entirely on the tyres for any small amount of cushioning of the car and driver from irregularities of the road surface.
Previously, the circuit owners controlled the income of the teams and negotiated with each individually; however Ecclestone persuaded the teams to "hunt as a pack" through FOCA. In return for the package, almost all that was required was to surrender trackside advertising. Bya BMW turbocharged engine achieved a flash reading of 5.
To reduce engine power output and thus speeds, the FIA limited fuel tank capacity inand boost pressures inbefore banning turbocharged engines completely in Lotus began to develop a system of active suspensionwhich first appeared during on the Lotus Bythis system had been perfected and was driven to victory by Ayrton Senna in the Monaco Grand Prix that year.
In the early s other teams followed suit and semi-automatic gearboxes and traction control were a natural progression. The FIA, due to complaints that technology was determining the outcome of races more than driver skill, banned many such aids for This resulted in cars that were previously dependent on electronic aids becoming very "twitchy" and difficult to drive particularly the Williams FW Many observers felt the ban on driver aids was in name only as they "proved difficult to police effectively".
Powered by PorscheHondaand Mercedes-Benz, McLaren won sixteen championships seven constructors' and nine drivers' in that period, while Williams used engines from FordHonda, and Renault to also win sixteen titles nine constructors' and seven drivers'. The rivalry between racers Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost became F1's central focus duringand continued until Prost retired at the end of Senna died at the San Marino Grand Prix after crashing into a wall on the exit of the notorious curve Tamburellohaving taken over Prost's lead drive at Williams that year.
The FIA worked to improve the sport's safety standards since that weekend, during which Roland Ratzenberger also lost his life in an accident during Saturday qualifying.
No driver had died of injuries sustained on the track at the wheel of a Formula One car for 20 years, until the Japanese Grand Prix where Jules Bianchi collided with a recovery vehicle after aquaplaning off the circuit. Sincethree track marshals have lost their lives, one at the Italian Grand Prix the second at the Australian Grand Prix  and the third at the Canadian Grand Prix.
This so-called 'narrow track' era resulted in cars with smaller rear tyres, a narrower track overall, and the introduction of grooved tyres to reduce mechanical grip.
There were to be four grooves on the front three in the first year and rear that ran through the entire circumference of the tyre. The objective was to reduce cornering speeds and to produce racing similar to rainy conditions by enforcing a smaller contact patch between tyre and track.
This, according to the FIA, was to promote driver skill and provide a better spectacle. The grooved tyres also had the unfortunate side effect of initially being of a harder compound to be able to hold the grooved tread blocks, which resulted in spectacular accidents in times of aerodynamic grip failure as the harder compound could not grip the track as well.
The teams won every Constructors' Championship from to as well as placing themselves as the top four teams in the Constructors' Championship in every season between andand winning every race but one the Monaco Grand Prix between and Due to the technological advances of the s, the cost of competing in Formula One increased dramatically.
This increased financial burdens, combined with the dominance of four teams largely funded by big car manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benzcaused the poorer independent teams to struggle not only to remain competitive, but to stay in business, and forced several teams to withdraw.
Whiting's brief reply maintained that no such change would be permitted, and gave the teams the choice of limiting speeds through Turn 13, using tyres of a different specification to those used in qualifying, subject to a penalty, or changing tyres repeatedly, which would have been permitted if a driver's safety were at issue. Stoddart recorded a meeting around The Michelin representatives stated their position that the tyres provided to the teams could not safely complete the race distance, and requested that the Bridgestone teams, represented by Stoddart and Jordan 's Colin Kollespermit the installation of a chicane in Turn Those present discussed and agreed to reject the FIA's solution of speed-limiting the Michelin cars in the turn because of the potential for accidents.
They likewise dismissed the possibility of making pit stops every ten laps, resolved that a chicane was the best solution, and instructed several technical representatives to prepare plans for its installation.
Bernie Ecclestone volunteered to consult Todt, who had not come to the meeting, and the president of the FIA, Max Mosleywho was not present at the race, and reconvene the meeting when he had responses.
By the time Stoddart's account of the meeting was published, Todt had already denied that he had ever been consulted, but stated that, if asked, he would not have agreed to the chicane. The group, according to Stoddart, continued to propose alternative solutions, including "a non-championship race, or a race in which the Michelin teams could not score points, and even a race whereby only the Michelin teams used the new chicane", but eventually agreed that the best option was to install the chicane and run a non-championship race, without Ferrari if necessary.
The team principals were instructed to convey to their teams and drivers that, in the absence of FIA scrutineers and equipment, the technical rules could not be enforced, and that they were to conduct themselves honourably and in the interest of an entertaining race.
Of the drivers' opinions, Stoddart writes: The nine team principals who were present then resolved that, unless they and the FIA could come to a decision in the best interest of the sport, they would not participate in the race.
2005 United States Grand Prix
Mosley had apparently rejected all of their proposals, and it was stated that "Mosley had informed Mr. Stoddart was then approached by a Bridgestone representative and told that Bridgestone wanted him to race; he has also stated that given his "current relationship with Mr Mosley, [he] felt certain heavy sanctions would follow if [he] did not [race].
At the start of the race, all the cars lined up on the grid per FIA race procedure. As Charlie Whiting signalled the green light to start the formation lap, a full field of twenty cars set off as normal for a single lap before forming the starting grid. At the banked Turn 13, the entrance to the pit lane and the turn that was the centre of the controversyall teams that ran Michelin tyres returned to their pits, leaving just six cars from the three Bridgestone teams FerrariJordanand Minardi to start the race.
Schumacher retained the lead when the race started, and the only changes in positioning came when Karthikeyan overtook Albers but immediately lost the position again going into turn 1. By lap 10, many of the estimated —,  attendees had begun to leave the grandstands. Thousands of fans were reported to have gone to the Indianapolis Motor Speedway ticket office to demand refunds, and police were called to keep the peace.
Albers was the only car to run a three pit stop race, as all other drivers chose to stop only twice. The only lead changes came on lap 26, as Schumacher's second stop gave Barrichello the lead, and on lap 51, as Schumacher turned in the quickest pit stop at After this incident, which was not investigated by race officials, both Ferrari drivers were reminded over their radios not to crash out of the race, and they both settled into a slower pace, comfortably ahead of the rest of the field.
Monteiro and Karthikeyan, more than a lap down, finished in a distant third and fourth, and Albers and Friesacher brought up the rear, two laps down. However, Monteiro stayed behind to celebrate his first podium finish, and the first for a Portuguese driver. He also said that the "incident's not the fault of the teams, to be honest with you.